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Выпуск № 1 (2013 год)

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Cyril Aslanov
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Professor, Ph.D.

Northwest Semitic Structural Influences on Archaic Greek: a Reassessment

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In this paper, I examine some features of Archaic Greek that constitute an innovation with respect to Mycenaean Greek in an attempt to ascribe them to the impact of the intense contact with Northwest Semitic languages during the period of the Dark Ages, an epoch when the influence exerted by the Phoenician world was also felt outside the system of the language. As far as the language structure of Archaic Greek is concerned, it is possible to point at a remarkable convergence of Archaic Greek toward the language spoken on the Syro-Phoenician shore of the Eastern Mediterranean or in Cyprus. It is worth noting that the impact of Phoenician on Greek was far deeper and much more comprehensive than the other way round. Among the Indo-European languages, only the Anatolian and the Iranian language families can pretend to a comparable exposition to the structural influences exerted by Semitic languages. Moreover, the Northwest Semitic influence on the development of Greek linguistic system occurred in a crucial period in the history of the language, that is, during the transitional period between Mycenaean and Archaic Greek. It seems that the adoption of the Phoenician alphabet around 800 BCE was only the epiphenomenon that reveals a much more essential impact of Phoenician on the deep structures of Archaic Greek. Since this pressure of Northwest Semitic most probably began during the Dark Ages of Greek history, that is, during the transitional period from Late Mycenaean to Archaic Greece (1200-800 BCE), it is likely that the borrowing of the alphabet, which is the most visible contact-induced innovations, was only the consecration of a long-running process that occurred beforehand. In any case, the task of the linguist is to dig into the deep structures of the language in order to unveil the implication of the contact with Phoenician on the grammatical system and not only on the external representation of the language.
 
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